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\jexpand\viewkind1\viewscale100\pgbrdrhead\pgbrdrfoot\splytwnine\ftnlytwnine\htmautsp\nolnhtadjtbl\useltbaln\alntblind\lytcalctblwd\lyttblrtgr\lnbrkrule \fet0\sectd \linex0\headery708\footery708\colsx708\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl {\header \pard\plain \s15\qc \li0\ri0\widctlpar\tqc\tx4536\tqr\tx9072\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \f1\fs24\lang1038\langfe1038\cgrid\langnp1038\langfenp1038 {12. t\'e9tel \par }}{\*\pnseclvl1\pnucrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl2\pnucltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl3\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta .}}{\*\pnseclvl4\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxta )}} {\*\pnseclvl5\pndec\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl6\pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl7\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl8 \pnlcltr\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}{\*\pnseclvl9\pnlcrm\pnstart1\pnindent720\pnhang{\pntxtb (}{\pntxta )}}\pard\plain \qc \li0\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \f1\fs24\lang1038\langfe1038\cgrid\langnp1038\langfenp1038 {\b\fs28 \par }\pard\plain \s1\qc \li0\ri0\keepn\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \b\f1\fs28\lang1038\langfe1038\cgrid\langnp1038\langfenp1038 {Az alany \'e9s az \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny, a kett\'f5 viszonya; a t\'e1rgy \'e9s fajt \'e1i \par }\pard\plain \qc \li0\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \f1\fs24\lang1038\langfe1038\cgrid\langnp1038\langfenp1038 {\b\fs28 \par \par }\pard\plain \s17\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \f1\fs24\lang1038\langfe1038\cgrid\langnp1038\langfenp1038 {\'84Amir\'f5l valamit meg\'e1llap\'edtunk, az az alany, s amit meg\'e1llap\'edtunk r\'f3la, az az \'e1ll \'edtm\'e1ny.\'94 \par }\pard\plain \qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \f1\fs24\lang1038\langfe1038\cgrid\langnp1038\langfenp1038 { \par 1. Az \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny: fajt\'e1ja sz\'f3faja szerint k\'fcl\'f6n\'edthet\'f5 el: igei, n\'e9vsz\'f3i, n\'e9vsz\'f3i-igei. \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f1 \hich\af1\dbch\af0\loch\f1 a)\tab}}\pard \qj \fi-390\li1095\ri0\widctlpar\jclisttab\tx1095\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\ls1\adjustright\rin0\lin1095\itap0 {Igei \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny: kifejezheti az alany cselekv\'e9s\'e9t, t\'f6rt\'e9n \'e9s\'e9t, l\'e9tez\'e9s\'e9t, birtokl\'e1st, pl.: \'84A felleg zs\'e1kja }{\uldb pattan}{, v\'edz }{\uldb csurran}{ \'e9s riadtan \'f3rj\'e1si hangya }{\uldb fut}{.\'94 A l\'e9tige jelent\'e9se is sokr\'e9t\'fb, l\'e9tez\'e9st, birtokl\'e1 st, az alanynak valamihez val\'f3 tartoz\'e1s\'e1t fejezi ki, pl.: }{\uldb Vannak}{ \'e1llataid? Az igei \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny igealakja ragoz\'e1si rendszer\'e9vel k\'e9pes kifejezni az alany sz\'e1m\'e1t \'e9s szem\'e9ly\'e9t, a cselekv\'e9s m\'f3dj\'e1t \'e9s idej\'e9t, tov\'e1bb\'e1 ir\'e1nyults\'e1g\'e1t \'e9s hat\'e1rozotts\'e1g\'e1t, pl.: Ne egyetek ilyen moh\'f3n! Az ige szem\'e9lyragoz\'e1sa kifejezi az alany sz\'e1m\'e1t \'e9s szem\'e9ly\'e9t, \'ed gy az alany el is maradhat (=nem kifejtett alany). A kell, lehet, illik, tetszik, van, nincs ig\'e9ket szem\'e9lytelen ig\'e9knek nevezz\'fck. Az igei \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1nyt \'f6sszetett (analitikus) igealakkal fejezz\'fck ki j\'f6v\'f5 idej\'fb \'e9s m\'fa lt idej\'fb felt\'e9teles m\'f3d\'fa cselekv\'e9s eset\'e9n, pl.: }{\uldb El fogok utazni}{. \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f1 \hich\af1\dbch\af0\loch\f1 b)\tab}N\'e9vsz\'f3i \'e9s n\'e9vsz\'f3i-igei \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny: a n\'e9vsz\'f3i \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny azonos\'edt\'e1st vagy min\'f5s\'edt\'e9st fejez ki, pl.: }{\ul Az ember}{ }{\uldb haland\'f3}{ . Mivel a n\'e9vsz\'f3i \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny csak egyes sz\'e1m 3. szem\'e9ly\'fb, kijelent\'f5 m\'f3d, jelen idej\'fb alak eset\'e9n \'e1ll mag\'e1ban, ha megv\'e1ltoztatjuk az alany sz\'e1m\'e1t \'e9s szem\'e9ly\'e9t vagy az id\'f5t \'e9s a m\'f3 dot, ezzel az \'e1talak\'edt\'e1ssal n\'e9vsz\'f3i-igei \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1nyt hozunk l\'e9tre. \par }\pard \qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 { \par 2. Az alany: alanyesetben \'e1ll\'f3 f\'f5n\'e9v vagy f\'f5n\'e9vi jelleg\'fb sz\'f3faj. Az alanyra a ki? mi? kik? mik? k\'e9rd\'f5 n\'e9vm\'e1ssal \'e9s az \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1nnyal k\'e9rdez\'fcnk, pl.: }{\ul Ki}{ l\'e1tott engem? }{{\field{\*\fldinst SYMBOL 174 \\f "Symbol" \\s 12}{\fldrslt\f3\fs24}}}{ k\'e9rd\'f5 n\'e9vm\'e1s = alany (=nem kifejtett alany). Az alany gyakran cselekv\'e9st kifejez\'f5 f\'f5n\'e9vi igen\'e9v a szem\'e9lytelen ig\'e9k mellett, pl.: }{\ul El}{ }{\uldb kell}{ }{\ul mennem} {. A t\'f6bbi n\'e9vsz\'f3 is \'e1llhat alanyk\'e9nt, pl.: szem\'e9lyes vagy mutat\'f3 n\'e9vm\'e1s. Az alany mindig alanyesetben \'e1ll, csak igen\'e9vi \'e9s birtokos szem\'e9lyrag kapcsol\'f3dhat hozz\'e1. \par Az alany fajt\'e1i: \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f3 \loch\af3\dbch\af0\hich\f3 \'b7\tab}}\pard \qj \fi-360\li1425\ri0\widctlpar\jclisttab\tx1425\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\ls2\adjustright\rin0\lin1425\itap0 {Hat\'e1rozott: megnevez\'e9s vagy r\'e1mutat\'e1s r\'e9v\'e9n nyilv\'e1nval \'f3v\'e1 tessz\'fck, hogy kire vagy mire vonatkozik az \'e1ll\'edt\'e1s. \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f3 \loch\af3\dbch\af0\hich\f3 \'b7\tab}Hat\'e1rozatlan: a besz\'e9l\'f5 nem tudja vagy nem akarja megnevezni a cselekv\'f5t. \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f3 \loch\af3\dbch\af0\hich\f3 \'b7\tab}\'c1ltal\'e1nos: az \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny \'e1ltal jel\'f6lt cselekv\'e9st, t\'f6rt\'e9n\'e9st, l\'e9tez\'e9st, tulajdons\'e1got \'e1ltal\'e1nos \'e9rv\'e9ny\'fbv\'e9 t\'e1g\'edtja. \par }\pard \qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {Az alany elmarad\'e1s\'e1nak \'e9s hi\'e1ny\'e1nak esetei: \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f3 \loch\af3\dbch\af0\hich\f3 \'b7\tab}}\pard \qj \fi-360\li1425\ri0\widctlpar\jclisttab\tx1425\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\ls3\adjustright\rin0\lin1425\itap0 {Tapad\'e1sos alany: az alany hozz\'e1tapad az \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1nyhoz, pl.: Ter \'edtve van (az asztal). \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f3 \loch\af3\dbch\af0\hich\f3 \'b7\tab}Alanytalan mondat: id\'f5j\'e1r\'e1sra, napszakokra vonatkoz\'f3 kifejez\'e9sek, pl.: Vill\'e1mlik. \par }\pard \qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 { \par 3. Az alany \'e9s az \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny egyeztet\'e9se: \par A mondat f\'f5 r\'e9szeinek kapcsolat\'e1t az \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1nyon jel\'f6lj\'fck. Igei \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1nyon az igei szem\'e9lyragok fejezik ki az alany sz\'e1m\'e1t \'e9s szem\'e9ly\'e9t, m\'edg a n\'e9vsz\'f3i \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1nyt a t\'f6bbes sz\'e1 m jelei seg\'edts\'e9g\'e9vel sz\'e1mban egyeztetj\'fck, pl.: }{\ul \'c9n}{ }{\uldb l\'e1ttam}{, de }{\ul ti}{ }{\uldb nem l\'e1tt\'e1tok}{. \par Alaki egyeztet\'e9s: az \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny az alany sz\'e1m\'e1hoz \'e9s szem\'e9ly\'e9hez igazodik. \par \'c9rtelmi egyeztet\'e9s: az alany jelent\'e9s\'e9hez alkalmazkodik. \par \'c1ll\'edtm\'e1ny egyeztet\'e9se t\'f6bb alannyal: ha a mondatnak t\'f6bb alanya van, a sz\'e1mbeli egyeztet\'e9s alaki \'e9s \'e9rtelmi is lehet. \par Ha az alanyok k\'fcl\'f6nb\'f6z\'f5 sz\'e1m\'faak \'e9s szem\'e9ly\'fbek, az \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny mindig a t\'f6bbes sz\'e1m\'fa \'e9s legkisebb nyelvtani szem\'e9lyhez igazodik }{{\field{\*\fldinst SYMBOL 174 \\f "Symbol" \\s 12}{\fldrslt\f3\fs24}}}{ csak \'e9rtelmi egyeztet\'e9s. \par \par 4. T\'e1rgy: az igei \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1ny legk\'f6zvetlenebb b\'f5v\'edtm\'e9nye, azt nevezi meg, akire, amire a cselekv\'e9s ir\'e1nyul, vagy ami ennek eredm\'e9nyek\'e9ppen j\'f6n l\'e9tre, pl.: }{\uldash Kenyeret}{ }{\uldb eszik}{. Nem csak az igei \'e1 ll\'edtm\'e1nyhoz kapcsol\'f3dhat, hanem a mondat igen\'e9vvel kifejezett b\'e1rmely b\'f5v\'edtm\'e9ny\'e9hez, pl: Gell\'e9rt megsz\'f3l\'edtotta a }{\uldash verset}{ olvas\'f3 }{\uldash l\'e1nyt}{. \par A t\'e1rgy fajt\'e1i: \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f3 \loch\af3\dbch\af0\hich\f3 \'b7\tab}}\pard \qj \fi-360\li720\ri0\widctlpar\jclisttab\tx720\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\ls4\adjustright\rin0\lin720\itap0 {Hat\'e1rozatlan (alanyi) \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f3 \loch\af3\dbch\af0\hich\f3 \'b7\tab}Hat\'e1rozott (t\'e1rgyas): felismerhet\'f5: \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f2 \hich\af2\dbch\af0\loch\f2 o\tab}}\pard \qj \fi-360\li1440\ri0\widctlpar\jclisttab\tx1440\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\ls4\ilvl1\adjustright\rin0\lin1440\itap0 {Hat\'e1rozott n\'e9vel\'f5r\'f5l \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f2 \hich\af2\dbch\af0\loch\f2 o\tab}F\'f5n\'e9v birtokos szem\'e9lyjel\'e9r\'f5l \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f2 \hich\af2\dbch\af0\loch\f2 o\tab}T\'e1rgy = szem\'e9lyes n\'e9vm\'e1s \par {\listtext\pard\plain\f2 \hich\af2\dbch\af0\loch\f2 o\tab}T\'e1rgy = tulajdonn\'e9v \par }\pard \qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {A t\'e1rgy hat\'e1rozotts\'e1g\'e1t az ige ragoz\'e1sa is jelzi. Nyelv\'fcnknek saj\'e1toss\'e1ga, hogy az igei \'e1ll\'edtm\'e1nyt nem csak az alannyal egyeztetj\'fc k, hanem a t\'e1rggyal is. \par Ha az ige\'e9nek nincs t\'e1rgya vagy hat\'e1rozatlan a b\'f5v\'edtm\'e9nye, akkor az ige alanyi ragoz\'e1s\'fa. \par Ha az ig\'e9nek van t\'e1rgya \'e9s az hat\'e1rozott, akkor az ige t\'e1rgyas ragoz\'e1s\'fa. A t\'e1rgy hat\'e1rozott, 3. szem\'e9ly\'fb. \par Nyelv\'fcnk saj\'e1toss\'e1ga, hogy E/1. szem\'e9ly\'fb ig\'e9vel nem csak 3. szem\'e9ly\'fb t\'e1rgyra utalhatunk, hanem 2. szem\'e9ly\'fbre is, pl.: Arra }{\uldb k\'e9rem}{ }{\uldash \'f5t}{. \par A t\'e1rggyal val\'f3 kapcsolatok alapj\'e1n az ig\'e9k m\'e1r sz\'f3t\'e1ri alakjukban k\'e9t csoportra oszlanak: t\'e1rgyatlan \'e9s t\'e1rgyas. \par }}